Phát âm đuôi -ed

Chúng ta bắt gặp đuôi -ed ở động từ thì quá khứ như worked, wanted, lived và tính từ như bored, excited, interested. Có ba cách phát âm đuôi -ed như sau:

⏩ Đuôi -ed phát âm /t/

Từ tận cùng bằng phụ âm vô thanh /p/, /k/, /f/, /s/, /θ/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/ (ngoại trừ /t/)

/p/
stop /stɒp/ stopped /stɒpt/
hoped, typed, stepped, dropped, developed

/k/
like /laɪk/ liked /laɪkt/
talked, blocked, clicked, picked, tracked

/f/
laugh /lɑːf/ laughed /lɑːft/
coughed, photographed, cuffed, sniffed, surfed

/s/
pass /pɑːs/ passed /pɑːst/
kissed, messed, tossed, danced, chased

/θ/
bath /bɑː θ/ bathed /bɑː θt/
frothed, toothed

/ʃ/
wash /wɒʃ/ washed /wɒʃt/
wished, pushed, rushed, mashed, crashed

/tʃ/
watch /wɒtʃ/ watched /wɒtʃt/
matched, punched, lunched, coached, approached

 Đuôi -ed phát âm /d/

Từ tận cùng bằng nguyên âm hoặc phụ âm hữu thanh /b/, /g/, /v/, /ð/, /z/, /ʒ/, /ʤ/, /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /l/, /r/ (ngoại trừ /d/)

tận cùng bằng nguyên âm
play /pleɪ/ played /pleɪd/
studied, agreed, sued, cried, bowed

/b/
grab /ɡræb/ grabbed /ɡræbd/
robbed, sobbed, bribed, described, disturbed

/g/
beg /beɡ/ begged /beɡd/
logged, bragged, dragged, blogged, shrugged

/v/
love /lʌv/ loved /lʌvd/
lived, moved, solved, shaved, believed

/ð/
bathe /beɪð/ bathed /beɪðd/
breathed, mouthed, clothed, betrothed, loathed

/z/
buzz /bʌz/ buzzed /bʌzd/
raised, caused, advised, apologized, refused

/ʒ/
massage /məˈsɑːʒ/ massaged /məˈsɑːʒd/
sabotaged

/ʤ/
change/tʃeɪndʒ/ changed/tʃeɪndʒd/
agedjudged, charged, encouraged, managed

/m/
climb /klaɪm/ climbed /klaɪmd/
seemed, named, filmed, formed, bloomed

/n/
rain /reɪn/ rained /reɪnd/
learned, phoned, listened, ruined, cleaned

/ŋ/
belong /bɪˈlɔːŋ/ belonged /bɪˈlɔːŋd/
prolonged, tongued, boomeranged, banged, pinged

/l/
pull /pʊl/ pulled /pʊld/
called, filled, rolled, yelled, sailed

/r/
prefer /prɪˈfɜːr/ preferred /prɪˈfɜːrd/
wondered, answered, appeared, volunteered, feared

⏩ Đuôi -ed phát âm /id/

Từ tận cùng bằng âm /t/ và /d/

/t/
start /stɑːt/ started /'stɑːtɪd/
wanted, waited, counted, visited, tested

/d/
need /niːd/ needed /ˈniːdɪd/
landed, funded, decided, loaded, pretended